Robots working in the medical field – 16th Annual Seminar robotics

robotic surgeryKogakuin University, Seminar organized by the 16th Robotics Society of Japan , “Medical Robotics and entered a practical stage,” was held. Organizers said this Hitachi Momoi Yasuyuki.

In recent years, “da Vinci” ( Intuitive Surgical rice ) and “ROBODOC” actually begin to use in the treatment of surgical robots and, finally entering a stage of practical use for medical robots. The biggest difference between robots and medical and industrial robots, high security is required. Therefore, medical robots, and robots of the past that different approach is required.

The seminar robotics this point of development and introduction of medical robotics in-the beginning to be practical, even for the other to request the medical robotics from the field of medical practice, made a speech the following four .

1. “Current Status and Future Development of Medical Robotics” (10:05 to 11:25) Sakuma Itirou Associate Professor, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo
2. “Operations support system” (11:25 to 12:45), Hitachi’s Suga Kazutoshi
3. “Magic hand of laparoscopic surgery: Forceps Robot” (14:00 to 15:20) Mr. Kamino Makoto Toshiba
4. “From the expectations of the clinician Medical Robotics” (15:20 to 16:40) Hashizume Makoto Professor, Kyushu University Faculty of Medicine, Emergency Medicine

○ “The present and future development of medical robotics,” he Sakuma Itirou Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo

In a speech of Professor Sakuma Itirou University of Tokyo Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, “The Current Status and Future Development of Medical Robotics” theme that was introduced in a remote-controlled robotic manipulator primarily minimally invasive surgery.

Surgery and minimally invasive does not say to surgical treatment while observing the internal small hole opened in the body, because there is no incision and craniotomy great physical and early recovery of patients that can reduce the psychological burden have merit. Recently, we have displayed on the monitor television images of the body using an endoscope, the surgeon watching the video, the forceps of the small inserted through the incision small (surveillance) that the remote control equipment including electric scalpel and that an increasing number of cases to do an operation. In addition, this surgery is beginning to be used for remote-controlled robotic manipulator.

robotic surgery1Also, before surgery, X-ray CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance diagnostic imaging) to measure three-dimensional structural information using the target organ. Using 3-D model was created based on it, and to simulate different surgical procedures, also may have already started and went for surgery to navigation data. The 3D shape model, PET (positron emission tomography) and f-MRI (functional MRI), MEG (magnetic encephalography) are overlaid functional information obtained by others.

Are also promoting research and development of surgical robotic systems to support the use of information and diagnostic information before surgery and surgery planning. The robotic system is to sense higher than direct human operation, although not as much power and be put out of work to be accurate, there are a number of advantages. By performing surgery while controlling the robot system with surgical planning information that will allow more accurate surgery. Also, if you were away from the patient’s doctor, it can be operated by remote control. This is not just a mere distance, which means that the past will be able to reach the site of surgery is also human. That is, robot assisted surgery is a sophisticated surgical instrument, the surgeon, “a new hand,” he said.

Meanwhile, during stereo tactic neurosurgery and orthopedic surgery, various three-dimensional measurements, determining a position on the affected area three-dimensional images obtained by image processing, and determining how that line of approach before surgery we have begun. That is to guide the operation and use of this information, and is developing a research assistant professor Sakuma “surgical navigation” is.

In this system, and three-dimensional topographic images on a computer monitor screen to display the CG, on the image, where we are in real time CG has been shown in surgical operations. Doctors doing surgery to be able to understand the relationship between structure and freedom around the site and three-dimensional operation, surgical safety, efficiency and effectiveness that improves. Furthermore, an accurate view of information superimposed on real space virtual space that we are observing doctors surgery, the surgical navigation system to provide navigation information such as where the surgery has but in discussions.

In developing this surgical navigation, of course, the integration of real and virtual spaces surgery, becomes an important point.

Specific measures such as in the case of brain surgery, has been taken to several markers attached to the head of the patient before surgery. This marker is the medium in order to support the position of the head during surgery and patient preoperative image, whereby we support the position and orientation of the head pose and the preoperative images during surgery, preoperative it will enable navigation.

Furthermore, to obtain information such as real-time direction and depth in the shadow of the organ part, ongoing research and development of 3D display that presents a three-dimensional image space to reproduce the reality of the affected area The.

Conditions required displaying three-dimensional medical image display device to use as a navigation operation is as follows.

– On the precise spatial position and distance
• The need to wear special glasses, small observation position constraints
– Can be observed in simultaneous multiplayer
– Color display
* Video can be displayed for the affected area, such as superposition and
– Less visual fatigue

Great robot technology in Japan, diagnostics, treatment, rehabilitation, have been many attempts to apply the field of medical and welfare care and welfare.

By developing robotic technology for medical applications: 1. Be treated the exact safe, 2. To ensure the safety of health workers by making the robot work with high risk of infection, 3. Nursing serious teachers or health workers in shortage, and letting the robots do not need the work done by people, can achieve a more humane medical environment, 4. simulators by introducing robot technology education, animal experiments can be reduced, enabling more advanced training in medical technology – and it can be.

Robot assisted surgery is one of the medical robot. The robot can be divided into therapeutic robots and robot navigation. Robot navigation, the robot is used to guide the affected area and located the exact equipment used by doctors to perform surgery, treat the final act performed by a doctor.

The robot therapy, in addition to positioning appliances, and laser cutting of bone, we work itself and specific treatment of the vascular junction. Currently, orthopedics, neurosurgery, abdominal surgery, ophthalmology, and ENT have been studied for use robot-assisted surgery.

Future robotic surgical assistance, medical device technology combines a variety of recent progress continues, it will become more sophisticated treatment systems.

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